The intellectuals today, are busy trying to help the common man by solving for types of governance, economy, and politics. While, some advocate capitalism and some communism. Some say that the answer is in changing the structure of the governing systems, and then, some say that the trade rules need to change. I am not saying that these systems are unnecessary. But the welfare and education of common people are not driven by political agenda; The economic principles of the government do not contribute to the happiness index of a country. To demonstrate, we can look at the superpowers of history and see some worldwide effects.

Alexander the Great

The first of the superpowers, though was very short-lived, has a non-omittable mark on history. Let’s look at some of the factors during Alexander the great’s reign.

Type of governance: Right-winged monarchy (Highly ambitious)
International policy: Invasions and colonization, with treaties and marriages.
Ideals: To unite the world under one reign and bring justice to the suppressed population. Ambition prioritized over religion.
Advancements: Growth in battle strategies and weapon systems
Trade: Nothing mention worthy.
Education: Establishment of several libraries and preservation of literary works.
People: Overall satisfied and happy except for the last-minute revolt; Resulting in the system returning to small fighting territories and a loss of public welfare and education.
Effect on the world: I can only assume, but the people at the time must have considered the rule dictatorial (resulting in revolt). But it made a huge impact and a good name in the future.

The Gupta Empire

The next superpower of the world was India in the Gupta period. It is called the golden age of India but should in fact be called the golden age of the world.

Type of governance: Extreme right-winged monarchy
International policy: Absolute rule over Indian territories. Treaties with the neighbors, and a good standard of trade and literary exchange with other nations.
Ideals: Driven by strict Hindu beliefs.
Advancements: Huge growth in science, technology, literature, architecture and commerce giving India the wealth she retained; Lasting through several Mongol invasions until the British colonizers sucked her dry.
Trade: Trade of not only commodities but literature and intellect were at its peak; Even if we compare it with the present world.
Education: Production and rewrites of huge volumes of literary works. Unparalleled institutions that provided free education to students from over the world. Indian works of Sushrut (medicine), Aryabhatt (mathematics), Varaahmihir (astronomy, architecture), Vaatsyaayan (Philosophy), Kalidas (Sanskrit writer) etc. inspired several travelers, students and plagiarizers; Resulting in creation of numerous works around the globe (China, Greece, Rome, Arabia, Central Asia etc.).
People: The golden age of India. But the historians criticize it for implementing strict caste systems.
Effect on the world: Excellent trade with peaceful treaties. Inspiration given to the world with literature, architecture and technology through free institutions like Taxila, Nalanda and Vikramshila. No unnecessary wars or a show of extraneous ambition.

The British

The next mention-worthy name in the list of superpowers is the British Monarchy under the influence of East India Company.

Type of governance: Extreme right-winged monarchy
International policy: Colonization of the whole world with heavy taxation on the colonies and treaties with contenders like France, Portugal etc.
Ideals: Ambitions of East India Company and modern Christianity drove the power.
Advancements: The so-called Scientific revolution. Looting the wealth from the colonies and aggregating in the domestic lands that still lasts and makes England and other European countries rich.
Trade: Bogus trade through East India Company, only to colonize the states later and implement heavy taxations to exploit them.
Education: Advancement in technological education. But the elite class reserved the education to themselves; Very similar or rather worse than the caste system in India. Also, the ruling class looted the literatures from the colonies. Because it was the mono-power, it manipulated the meanings of literature to support their ambitious propaganda. Apart from scientific papers and critical commentaries on other philosophies, no mention worthy work produced.
People: The elite class enjoyed and forced the most brutal rule in history over the colonies. While slavery, inhumane punishments and suicidal bankruptcies were the turnouts of this system.
Effect on the world: A black chapter in the history of many nations. Mental and physical tortures that even the present generation fights to overcome. Rise of the first corporation (EIC) that exploited the world with selfish policies. The revered kings and queens protected and hid the ambition and brutality of the corporation; Leading to uprooting of the public trust in the monarch system.

USA, Russia, and China

Lastly, USA competing against Russia and China are the driving forces for the world in the current scenario.

Type of governance: A mixture of right-winged capitalist democracy (USA) with left-winged socialism (Russia) and right-winged communalism (China)
International policy: Competition through trade and acquiring natural resources. Finally, controlling the economy and driving the democratic public with propaganda.
Ideals: Literally no ideals apart from personal goals of the leaders to retain power and money. Religion, science, philosophy are all tools for gaining trust and manipulating the population.
Advancements: Huge technological advancements at an unprecedented rate. Benchmark advances in medicine, automation and energy production.
Trade: International trade with aided technology and complex rules to keep corporations in monopoly and in control of the resources. Big corporations funding the democratic governments and mass manipulating the votes, and in turn implementing laws that increase their profits, and the bleeds dry the common man.
Education: Education is supposed to be for everyone, but any worthy education is so costly that it ensures a virtual slavery by the corporations for poor students. Higher education mainly constitutes of either the sciences or the laws that teach to bend and corrupt the system to one’s selfish benefits. Moral and theological studies are only exceptions in the system.
People: Rich become rich and poor becomes poorer. On one hand there is an unrequited excess of resources while on the other, there are deaths in the absence of clean water and food. The average population or the middle-class people struggle to survive and live in the continuous fear of falling below the poverty line. The fear becomes intolerable at a point and people fall to the paths of crime, depression, anxiety, resentment and escapism. The government and the corporations use crime for their heinous jobs, depression to dictate, anxiety to manipulate, resentment to divide and escapism to promote consumerism. A vicious cycle entraps the human civilization with shackles of helplessness and chains of pain.
Effect on the world: Corporations create a new divide of chaos where a neighbor can be an enemy and a foreigner can be a friend. Distrust in government systems creates civil wars and rebellions throughout the world. Pushing against the control of a foreign nation or a corporation gives birth to terrorism. Suppression of people in the aftermath of colonization to struggle for basic resources gives birth to increased corruption in the third world countries. Panic and distrust are the main emotions of any crowd. We exploit the natural resources to a level that has become fatal for the entire human race. The rest is all in the present.


There are other superpowers in history that have either ruled a major part of the world or have won many wars or were incredibly rich. But I saw it fit to mention the superpowers which not only have statistical properties but also a moral effect on how the world thinks of itself. In my view, these superpowers are the real superpowers of lands and time as well. By the way, I am pretty sure, even if someone wishes to discuss other powers like the Czars, Mongols, etc., the list above gives a pretty solid idea of how the technical factors have no effect in making a reign great. Rather it is the ideals that matter to the common public.


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